We included 4365 Dutch patients from the Alpha Omega Cohort (read more about the AOC population here). At baseline (2002–2006), dietary data including coffee consumption over the past month was collected with a 203-item validated food-frequency questionnaire.
Causes of death were monitored until 1 January 2013. HRs for mortality in categories of coffee consumption were obtained from multivariable Cox proportional hazard models, adjusting for lifestyle and dietary factors.
Most patients (96%) drank coffee, and the median total coffee intake was 375 mL/d (∼3 cups/d). During a median follow-up of 7.1 y, a total of 945 deaths occurred, including 396 CVD related and 266 IHD-related deaths.